England niederlande

england niederlande

WM, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Neutraler Ort, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. ∑, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. WM-Quali . Europa, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Zu Hause, 1, 0, 1, 0, 2: 2. Auswärts, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0: 2. WM, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Neutraler Ort, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. ∑, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. WM-Quali . Europa, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Zu Hause, 1, 1, 0, 0, 2: 0. Auswärts, 1, 0, 1, 0, 2: 2. Die Englisch-Niederländischen Seekriege wurden im und Jahrhundert zwischen Großbritannien und der Republik der Sieben Vereinigten Niederlande ( Vereinigte Provinzen), Machtvakuum entstehen, in das das Vereinigte Königreich (Commonwealth of England) und die Vereinigten Provinzen der Niederlande.

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England niederlande -

Umfangreiche Informationen zu Niederlande und England. Insbesondere der russische Zar wollte, dass diese Rolle von den Niederlanden wieder aufgenommen werden sollte, und auch, dass die Kolonien wieder zurückgegeben werden sollten. Im Jahr schlossen sich die sieben nördlichen Provinzen zusammen und gründeten die Republik der Sieben Vereinigten Provinzen. Dort versuchte vor allem die französische Flotte, Vorteile zu erringen. Er war am 8. März, als Truppen auf Java landeten.{/ITEM}

Lowestoft – Bergen – Viertageschlacht – St. James's Day Fight – Medway. Der Zweite Englisch-Niederländische Krieg war ein militärischer Konflikt zwischen dem Königreich England und den Vereinigten Provinzen der Niederlande in. Die Englisch-Niederländischen Seekriege wurden im und Jahrhundert zwischen Großbritannien und der Republik der Sieben Vereinigten Niederlande ( Vereinigte Provinzen), Machtvakuum entstehen, in das das Vereinigte Königreich (Commonwealth of England) und die Vereinigten Provinzen der Niederlande. WM, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Neutraler Ort, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. ∑, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0: 0. WM-Quali . Europa, Sp. S, U, N, Tore. Zu Hause, 1, 1, 0, 0, 2: 0. Auswärts, 1, 0, 1, 0, 2: 2.{/PREVIEW}

{ITEM-80%-1-1}Beide Staaten griffen im Frühjahr an — dieses Jahr ist in den Niederlanden pokalfinale 2019 das Rampjaar Katastrophenjahr bekannt. Nach dem Verlust von 17 Porto calculator und drei Admirälen darunter Admiralleutnant Obdamzog sich die Babushkas Spielautomat - erhöhe deine Gewinne bei Casumo Flotte unter dem Kommando des Vizeadmirals Cornelis Tromp — zurück. Er endete bereits auf Druck des englischen Parlaments. Der Krieg sollte lediglich mit Kaperfahrern weitergeführt werden, um den niederländischen Handel zu schädigen: Es geht durchaus hart zur Sache. Die Niederländer hatten Probleme, ihre Flottenverbände auszurüsten, da der einzige einsatzbereite Verband noch immer unter de Best online casino real money canada Kommando im Atlantik operierte.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Frankreich erklärte noch am England gewinnt mit 1: Danach kapitulierten die Niederlande. Frankreich, das Fürstbistum Münster und Kurköln marschierten in die Republik ein, während eine Landung der Engländer verhindert werden konnte. November in dieser Version in die Liste der exzellenten Artikel aufgenommen. Er durfte bei der Hochzeit nicht anwesend sein. Die Kapitulation von Gent beendete die Rebellion. Er hatte jedoch dem englischen Parlament weitreichende Zugeständnisse machen müssen. Da jedoch zur gleichen Zeit Einzelheiten über die Unterstützung der Oranierpartei bekannt wurden, ging Jan de Witt nicht darauf ein. In den folgenden Jahrzehnten steigerte sich der englische Seehandel, während der niederländische Seehandel einen allmählichen Niedergang erfuhr. Nach der Französischen Revolution marschierte die französische Armee in die Niederlande ein und verhalf der Batavischen Republik — zu ihrem kurzen Dasein. Doch aufgrund der noch immer nicht überwundenen Versorgungsprobleme war dies unmöglich, und die Vereinigten Niederlande erhielten somit die Gelegenheit, sich von ihrer Niederlage zu erholen.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: However great parts of the western CEB show no hiatuses leading to the conclusion that continuous sedimentation took place in these regions. TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemolfounded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century. To blood, to the flesh, to fire, to sack! Religion in the Netherlands. The literal translation into English is 'I will maintain'; an alternative translation, however, is 'I will hold firm' or 'I will Beste Spielothek in Hausmanning finden namely, the integrity and independence of the territory. For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurancewith private health insurance companies. Retrieved 19 May There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of hohensyburg casino spielautomaten seven wonders of the modern world. Retrieved 11 January After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription Beste Spielothek in Am Darrweg finden.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Besonders in den ausgedehnten Überseekolonien setzten sich rezultat uzivo fudbal Feindseligkeiten zwischen den englischen und niederländischen Handelsgesellschaften fort, die selbst über Tipico download android und Kriegsschiffe verfügten. Depay und Promes versuchen zu antworten, verzetteln sich im Doppelpass-Geschiebe aber vollkommen und der Ball ist bei Maguire und damit weg. Bubbles online Einfall Deutschlands in das ebenfalls neutrale Belgien führte zu einer Flüchtlingswelle von mehreren hunderttausend Menschen nach den Niederlanden, von den Stattdessen arbeitete er an einer anti-englischen Man anmelden. Die Minuten der Unterbrechungen gehen weiter. Allerdings war er in seinen Entscheidungen nicht frei. Nachdem Maximilian zeitweilig von den flämischen Städten Beste Spielothek in Am Darrweg finden Brügge gefangen gehalten wurde, gewann Maximilian mit zunehmender Dauer des Konfliktes die Oberhand. Städte und mit ihnen Handel und Handwerk entwickelten sich, und vor dem Hintergrund der immer schwächer werdenden lothringischen Herzogsgewalt bildeten sich im Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Dem gingen im europäischen Mächtesystem grundlegende Umwälzungen voraus. Mit Ausnahme von Flandern gehörten die Niederlande zwar nominell zum Heiligen Römischen Reich, die politische Bindung war jedoch sehr locker.{/ITEM}

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Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status. This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.

The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.

Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations.

Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.

The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse. In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren.

Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west.

On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.

The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood.

The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.

The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland.

The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.

In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.

Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.

The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. New projects have been periodically started since to renovate and renew the Delta Works.

A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements.

The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise.

A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1.

Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off.

To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.

The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.

This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.

The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves.

It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers.

Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.

In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.

In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.

Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.

Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet.

The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio.

The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers.

Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.

The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.

These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well.

The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.

They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.

Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, and coalition cabinets had to be formed.

Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position.

In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.

The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy.

In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [93] [94] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.

This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [96] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.

On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning , except for Limburg province where the position is named Governor Gouverneur but has the same tasks.

All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.

The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.

The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is different. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies rather than municipalities and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities.

They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant.

Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves. The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality.

The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade. The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia.

Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.

The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.

The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and quickly defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.

The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries.

Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.

The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita.

Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4. In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0.

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.

Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.

The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners.

Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. Also of economic importance is BrabantStad , a partnership between the municipalities of Breda , Eindhoven , Helmond , 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.

BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with the Brabantse Stedenrij polycentric city region as one of the national top regions, behind the Randstad megalopolis Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht.

With a total of 1. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT.

Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant. This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy.

The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.

The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.

Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.

The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.

Around 35, homes are said to be affected. The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports.

The Netherlands has, at some time in recent history, supplied one quarter of all of the world's exported tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country.

The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car.

Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines [j] , two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train.

There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into France.

As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.

From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.

The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world. Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5.

From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, [] with an average height of 1.

According to Eurostat , in there were 1. The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education.

The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.

Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.

Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.

These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.

It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.

Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Spanish , Turkish , Arabic , or Russian.

Religious identification in the Netherlands [6]. Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.

Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4.

The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.

This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant. By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.

There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.

The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church.

The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.

It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism. In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort.

Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.

Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia , but mainly migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco.

Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people.

There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education.

After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream.

The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO.

The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees.

A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.

Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.

Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union. The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students.

In , the Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

The Netherlands has been in the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for the sixth year in a row.

Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service.

The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.

Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:.

While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.

If you don't take out insurance, you risk a fine. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions.

In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon.

Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon. Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies.

These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance.

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Prime Minister is also responsible for the royal house and has a weekly meeting with the King on government policy. Informally the Prime Minister functions as the "face" of the cabinet to the public.

After the meetings of the cabinet on Friday, the Prime Minister hosts a press conference on the decisions of the cabinet and current affairs. The Prime Minister also has some functions in international affairs, attending the European Council every six months and maintaining bilateral contacts.

The official residence which is only used for official functions is the Catshuis ; the last Prime Minister to live in the Catshuis was Dries van Agt.

Incumbent Mark Rutte lives in a flat downtown The Hague. The Prime Minister has no security detail. Conventionally, the party with the largest number of seats in the lower house Tweede Kamer — literal translation to English is "Second Chamber" will initiate coalition talks after general elections.

These negotiations are concluded by means of a so-called "government agreement" regeerakoord. The lower house will have a debate about this agreement and, if this agreement meets sufficient support, the leader of the party with the largest number of seats in the lower house will be instituted as "formator" of the cabinet.

He or she usually appoints herself or himself Prime Minister. A minister from the smaller coalition party usually becomes Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

If there is a third or fourth party in the coalition, each has the right to name one of its ministers second and third Deputy Prime Minister.

For a list of Prime Ministers by religious affiliations, see Religious affiliations of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands. Gradually the Prime Minister became an official function of government leader, taken by the political leader of the largest party.

Since the role of the first minister has become relevant. In that year the Constitution of the Netherlands was amended to make ministers responsible to the States General rather than — as hitherto — being responsible to the King, who acted as the leader of cabinet.

Until the position chair of the Council of Ministers officially rotated between ministers. Between and the position formally still rotated but prominent politicians were able to claim a rotation period of four years.

In a separate Ministry of General Affairs was instituted which was informally linked to the Prime Minister. Barend Biesheuvel — was the last Prime Minister who was not the political leader of the largest party in cabinet, but actually of the third largest.

In the function of Prime Minister was laid down in the constitution. The position of the Prime Minister has been enforced by the creation of the European Council.

These are not included in the government of the Kingdom. The King appoints Deputy Prime Ministers. Man of the Match: The game was billed as a friendly before kick-off but debutant Hans Hateboer's shoulder barge into Danny Rose's face in the opening minute ensured it was anything but.

That, and the early loss of Joe Gomez to injury, did little deter England though, as Southgate's experimental side embarked on an encouraging first-half performance, which had everything except end product.

Gareth Southgate made seven changes to the England side which drew with Germany in November. Kyle Walker started on the right of a three-man defence to accommodate Kieran Trippier and Danny Rose in the wing-back positions.

Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain's rasping eighth-minute drive drew Dutch goalkeeper Jeroen Zoet into action before Virgil van Dijk deflected a Lingard shot wide on 17 minutes.

Jordan Pickford ensured Matthijs de Ligt's speculative drive on 22 minutes did not hand the hosts an unlikely foothold - something more clinical finishing would have achieved, Jordan Henderson glancing a Kieran Trippier free-kick wide 10 minutes later.

A dominant England were almost made to pay for their profligacy when Bas Dost headed a Memphis Depay corner over five minutes before the interval, and the in-form Lyon forward drew a save from Pickford in stoppage-time.

England continued in the same vein after the break, though, and their exuberant display should have yielded a penalty on 52 minutes, but Stefan de Vrij's clear trip on Marcus Rashford went unpunished.

A minute later, Raheem Sterling and Henderson got in each others' way while trying to convert Harry Maguire's knockdown in the area, but the English pressure soon told.

Pickford and Oxlade-Chamberlain combined to release Danny Rose down the left and when his cross was cleared to the edge of the area, Lingard kept his head to stroke the ball home.

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